Laws and Policies

LBJ signs Civil Rights Act of 1964

Federal Law

  • Executive Order 11246 (signed 1965), as amended (1967), forbids employment discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin by federal contractors and subcontractors and requires them to develop affirmative action plans and to take positive steps to eliminate employment bias.
  • Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1975 prohibits discrimination against employees and applicants who are over 40 years of age.
  • Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 prohibits sex discrimination in educational programs or activities that receive federal funds.
  • The Rehabilitation Act of 1973 requires federal contractors to take affirmative action to employ and promote qualified handicapped persons (Section 503) and prohibits discrimination against handicapped persons in any program or activity receiving federal financial assistance (Section 504).
  • Vietnam Era Veterans Readjustment Act of 1974 (38 U.S.C. 4212) as amended requires employers to take affirmative action to employ and advance disabled veterans and qualified veterans of the Vietnam era.
  • The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) protects qualified individuals with disabilities. The Act requires employers to make reasonable accommodation to facilitate employment of disabled individuals unless the employer can show the accommodation would impose undue hardship on the operation of business.
  • The Civil Rights Act of 1991 expands the scope of relevant civil rights statutes to provide adequate protection to victims of discrimination, and provides appropriate remedies for intentional discrimination and unlawful harassment in the workplace.
  • The Equal Pay Act requires that men and women be given equal pay for equal work in the same establishment.

Federal Agencies

California State Law

  • California Fair Employment and Housing Act. Initially passed in 1969, the act has been expanded over the years. It provides protection for groups not covered by federal statutes. In 1992, it was expanded to prohibit discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation. It was expanded again in 2003 to prohibit discrimination on the basis of gender identity or expression. A full list of protected groups is available in the text of Government Code Section 12920.
  • California State Proposition 209 prohibits the state from discriminating against, or granting preferential treatment to, any individual or group on the basis of race, sex color, ethnicity, or national origin in the operation of public employment, public education, or public contracting. It does not prohibit action that must be taken to establish or maintain eligibility for any federal program, where ineligibility would result in a loss of federal funds to the state. Its provisions are similar to those of the Regents' Resolution SP-2. Proposition 209 became effective in November 1997.

UC Policies